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Early Modern Nottingham (1500 – 1799)

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Go back to Nottingham in the Middle Ages (600 – 1499)

 

‘View of Nottingham from the East’ by Jan Siberechts c1695 © Nottingham City Museums and Galleries

‘View of Nottingham from the East’ by Jan Siberechts c1695 © Nottingham City Museums and Galleries

1512

A charter signed by Henry VIII licensed a group of Nottingham people, including Dame Agnes Mellers, widow of Mayor and bell founder Richard Mellers, to establish the Nottingham Free School, which later became Nottingham High School.

11 April 1538

Nicholas Heath, the last Prior of Lenton, was condemned for high treason and hanged in front of the gateway to the great Cluniac Priory of Lenton.

1541

The first documented reference to Nottingham’s ancient Goose Fair appears in the Nottingham Borough Records.

21 February 1551

Edward VI’s charter (Nottingham’s first illuminated charter) granted the property of St. John’s Hospital and St. Mary’s Chantry to the Corporation for the maintenance of Trent Bridge.

1558

A great storm swept over Nottingham damaging churches and other buildings.

c1563

William Lee was born about the year 1563 in Calverton near Nottingham; in 1589 he devised the first stocking frame knitting machine.

1580 to 1588

The spectacular Elizabethan mansion Wollaton Hall was designed by Robert Smythson and built by Sir Francis Willoughby.

1597

A number of the lath and timber houses of the old medieval part of Nottingham were destroyed by fire.

2 October 1603

Huntingdon Beaumont started construction of the country’s first documented railway in Nottingham; two miles of wooden waggonway track.

1 October 1604

The country’s first documented and earliest form of railway, two miles of wooden waggonway track between coal pits in Strelley and Wollaton, was laid and completed in Nottingham by Huntingdon Beaumont.

1614

The Nottingham Arms were officially recognised by the College of Arms, but it is not known how long they had been in use before that date, although the crest is based on the Seal of the City, which has been in use since the 15th century.

1617

Architect John Smythson’s plan of Nottingham Castle is the earliest surviving document to give detailed layouts and accurate information about the medieval construction.

1620s

Religious dissenters moved in to the area known as Rock Yard, below the Castle, as it fell outside the boundary of the town authorities and had for decades been a popular retreat for all kinds of thieves and vagabonds.

1621

Richard Bullyvant became Nottingham’s first postmaster.

1623

James I granted Nottingham Castle and the surrounding estate to Francis, Earl of Rutland, the last constable of the castle.

1623

Royal Mail coaches running to and from London were the earliest documented post in Nottingham.

4 August 1634

Charles I made his first visit to Nottingham.

1634

The Mayor, Sheriff and Aldermen were required to officially open Goose Fair by reading out a proclamation and ringing bells.

1636

The old Heth Beth Bridge over the River Trent fell into such decay that one arch fell down completely.

1637

By 1637 there was a fortnightly delivery of mail between Nottingham and London, with the postman covering the distance of over 100 miles on foot.

22 August 1642

Charles I raised his standard at Nottingham Castle to signal the outbreak of the Civil War.

1643

Royalists from Newark took control of Nottingham and briefly lay unsuccessful siege to the castle, using the tower of St. Nicholas’ Church as a vantage point from which to fire into the fortifications; the church was later demolished by Colonel John Hutchinson, the governor of Nottingham Castle, to prevent it being used as a gun platform.

1646

Goose Fair was cancelled because of the plague.

1648

Oliver Cromwell visited Nottingham.

1649

George Fox, founder of the Quaker Society, started his ministry in Nottingham.

1651

Colonel John Hutchinson got Parliament’s approval to remove the Nottingham garrison and demolish Nottingham Castle.

1654

Nottingham’s silver oval wait badges were probably made in 1654; they were worn by the official musicians until the office of town wait was abolished in the l830s.

1660

Sometime around 1660 Nottingham cloth merchant Thomas Smith began to offer banking services to his customers; the first private bank outside London and one of the earliest banks in England.

1663

Trent Bridge was nearly destroyed by the severe winter weather.

1669

The two Sheriff’s silver maces were made at a cost of £8 or £10 apiece and each Sheriff was obliged to reimburse his predecessor for their cost, less ten shillings, until they were paid for.

1672

Sir Francis Willoughby of Wollaton Hall wrote the world’s first systematic study of birds, his major works on the subject were published in 1672 after his death.

1674-79

The ruins of Nottingham Castle were cleared.

1674

The site of Nottingham Castle was bought by William Cavendish, First Duke of Newcastle, who began building a residence on the rock summit; he died when the walls were only a yard high.

1678

The Duke of Newcastle’s mansion on Castle Rock was completed; the architect was William Marsh.

1683

Trent Bridge was badly damaged and a considerable portion carried away by a flood.

1685

Highwaywoman Joan Phillips was hanged for highway robbery on a scaffold at the junction of Loughborough Road and Wilford Lane.

c1688

The approximate date of the formal establishment in Nottingham of Smith’s Bank by local merchant and banker Thomas Smith.

c1690

The first race meeting was held around this date on the old Forest Racecourse, just to the north of Nottingham; the course was said to be one of the best in England.

1692

The Royal Charter of William and Mary was the last to deal with town government in Nottingham.

1696

Powers were taken to supply Nottingham with water and a Waterworks Company was formed, taking water from the river Leen at the Castle rock and pumping it with an hydraulic engine, housed at the foot of Finkhill Street, to a reservoir on the east side of Park Row.

1699

Nottingham banker Thomas Smith died. Thomas had established Smith’s Bank in about 1688; the first private bank outside London.

1700

Nottingham’s population was about 6,000.

1704

Marshal Tallard, the French general, was captured at the battle of Blenheim and spent 14 years in exile in Newdigate House on Castle Gate in Nottingham.

1706

The Nottingham Bluecoat School was founded as a co-educational Charity School at Weekday Cross.

1708

A Mr Aiscough set up the first printing press in Nottingham.

1709

Abel Collins Almshouses were founded at Park Street and Houndsgate in Nottingham.

c1710

A Mr Ayscough established the first printing in Nottingham.

1711

Nottingham’s early Malt Cross was replaced by a roofed structure of six columns on a base of four steps and surmounted by sundials.  The earlier Malt Cross was first mentioned in 1495, when it was a long shaft standing on ten steps, which had stood in the Market Place at the foot of St James’s Street for centuries and had been used in the 15th and 16th centuries to announce historic events, and sometimes for public whippings.

1713

The crumbling remains of the old dividing wall in the Market Place, between the English and the French boroughs, were finally swept away.

1718

The corporation ordered the Market Place to be paved.

1720

John Plumptre, who promoted education among poor people, was the first of the Trustees in the Deed of The Blue Coat Charity School.

1723-26

The new Exchange was built at the eastern end of the Market Place; the building was designed by the Mayor, Marmaduke Pennel.

26 April 1724

During the spring assizes, part of the floor of Nottingham’s Shire Hall collapsed and several people fell through into the cellars.10

1724

The Shambles, a group of old shops, was demolished to make room for the new Exchange buildings.

1725

Trent Bridge was repaired again and a toll house was set up.

27 June 1729

A lease was granted by Nottingham Corporation for land to build a workhouse at the junction of York Street and Mansfield Road.

1729

Jessamine Cottages, originally called Workhouse yard, on Gillyflower Hill, were built in 1729 as a workhouse and remained as such until 1815, when the workhouse was divided into tenements. Gillyflower, or July Flower, Hill was named after the wild wallflowers that grew there.

1730

The first fully-fashioned cotton stocking was produced in Nottingham.

1739

Kitty Riley, an inmate of the Nottingham Workhouse, died at the age of 100.

1739

The grand Georgian Assembly Rooms were built on Low Pavement.29

1743

The last surviving medieval gate, Chapel Bar, was demolished to improve traffic flow and several narrow medieval streets were widened.

1750

Nottingham’s population was about 11,000.

23 August 1750

There was a severe earthquake in Nottingham, causing great alarm, but little reported damage.39

September 1752

The year the calendar was revised, missing out 11 days of September, was one of the few occasions Nottingham’s Goose Fair was not held.

2 October 1753

The date of Goose Fair was switched from September to start every year on 2 October.

1754

The foundations of Nuthall Temple were laid, although there had been a hall at Nuthall for centuries.23

30 November 1759

Mass murderer William Andrew Horne was executed on Gallows Hill at the top of Mansfield Road.

1760

Nottingham’s first theatre was built.

1760

Street lighting was first installed in Nottingham, using lamps filled with whale oil.17

2 October 1766

Nottingham’s ‘Great Cheese Riot’1 took place at Goose Fair over the high cost of cheese, during which the Mayor was knocked down by a large rolling cheese.

3 October 1766

Infantry and cavalry were brought in keep the peace following the riots of the previous day, but later that evening there were serious clashes between the rioters and military, with some people wounded by gunfire from the soldiers.1

1767

James Hargreaves settled in Nottingham and built the world’s first cotton mill off Lower Parliament Street.

1769-1772

The Shire Hall was re-built, the architect was James Gandon of London.

4 July 1776

The United States Declaration of Independence from the British Empire was adopted by the Continental Congress.

1776

Colwick Hall was built by the River Trent about three miles east of Nottingham.

1777

A new two storeys high brick grandstand, designed by the famous architect John Carr, was completed and opened on the old Forest Racecourse.25

1779

The first Post Office in Nottingham was established in the shop of John Raynor, a seedsman on the west side of High Street.

1779

A man sold his wife and children in the Market Place. The woman, aged seventeen, and her two children were put up for sale and sold for 27/6 (£1.37).

June 1779

Significant riots and disturbances in Nottingham by framework knitters.27

12 February 1781

A foundation stone for the General Hospital was laid on Derry Mount by the Mayor and Corporation.

18 September 1782

Building work was completed on Nottingham’s new General Hospital at Derry Mount, an open space inside the old Town Wall.

1783

The Trent Navigation Company was formed in to improve navigation on the River Trent between Nottingham and Hull.

1784

Mail coaches started to run between Nottingham and London.

1785

The Great Mace, the Mayor’s symbol of authority, was stolen.

1787

A new Great Mace, the Mayor’s symbol of authority, was made by John Stirland to replace the one stolen in 1785. The new mace was made of silver gilt, roughly 4ft 6in long, weighing approximately 200 ounces and bearing the royal arms of King George the Third.

1788

John Wesley, the founder of Methodism, preached his last sermon in Nottingham, from the pulpit in Hockley Chapel.

30 July 1792

The first sod was cut starting construction of the Nottingham Canal.

14 July 1793

George Green, a mathematical genius much admired by Albert Einstein, was born to a Nottingham miller, Green’s work was the beginning of modern mathematical physics.

April 1796

The entire length of the Nottingham Canal was completed, 14¾ miles to Langley Mill, causing the price of coal to be halved in the city.

1797

All 33 miles of the Nottingham to Grantham canal finally opened.

Continue to 19th Century Nottingham (1800 – 1899)

Return to the introduction and contents page

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For other information about Nottingham click here

If you want to know more about Nottingham’s past there is further information in ‘Events and dates in Nottingham’s history’ and through these websites:

The Nottinghamshire Heritage Gateway

The Thoroton Society of Nottinghamshire

Nottingham Local Studies Library

1 Yarnspinner, Valentine, Nottingham’s Great Cheese Riot & other 1766 Food Riots (Loaf On A Stick Press, May 2011) p8-9
10 Lowe, David, Nottingham Post, Bygones (Nottingham, Nottingham Post, 6 November 2013) p37
17 Rowbotham, Judith, Nottingham Post (Nottingham, Nottingham Post, 29 November 2014) p14
23 Nottinghamshire History, Website: Nuthall Temple (http://www.nottshistory.org.uk/monographs/nuthall/nuthall1.htm, Robert Holden, Nuthall Temple, Notts: Its History and Contents, 1916)
25 Dyer, Rachel, Nottingham Post, Bygones (Nottingham, Nottingham Post, 20 August 2015) p27
27 Dyer, Rachel, Nottingham Post, Bygones (Nottingham, Nottingham Post, 20 August 2015) p27
29 Dyer, Rachel, Nottingham Post (Nottingham, Nottingham Post, 13 August 2015) p40
39 Lomax, Scott, Nottingham City Council Archaeologist (https://www.facebook.com/nottingham.archaeology/posts/703402136533784)

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